How to make a Mini Outdoor Pond For Aquarium Fish

How to Make a Mini Outdoor Pond for Aquarium Fish

Everybody is ready to take a walk outside as soon as the weather gets warmer. What better way to enjoy nature than to set up your first mini pond for breeding aquarium fish? If you live in a warm climate that experiences seasonal changes, your mini-pond fun will last for between 3 and 4 months in summer. This is usually somewhere between May to September in the United States. However, if you live in the subtropical zone that stays above 50degF or 10degC for most of the year (like Florida), then you can play with fish outdoors all year round.

Nature does a spectacular job of raising fish in many ways, and we can learn some valuable lessons by putting our fish outside. Fish and shrimp develop brilliant coloration when grown under sunlight and fed natural foods like green water, algae, fallen leaves, and live insects. Mini ponds not only house an abundance of fish babies and plants for you to enjoy, but they also attract all sorts of wildlife – such as bugs, frogs, birds, and even deer. In times of drought, your pond may become a vital part of the local ecosystem.

How do you make a mini pond?

Find a


It is one of the most straightforward parts of making your mini pond. You can either start with a simple 5-gallon bucket, or you can purchase a 300-gallon stock tub at a livestock feed shop. You can also use old aquariums and kiddie pools. In general, larger containers are preferred to help minimize water quality issues and temperature swings. Metal containers may not be ideal for holding shrimp or snails. Invertebrates can be more sensitive to trace elements in the water.

Even large, decorative pots can become beautiful mini ponds for your backyard or apartment balcony.

The temperature management of your container will depend on where it is located. For example, place the container under shade if at all possible. You will see less algae grow because the temperature won’t fluctuate as much. (Algae is good for your fish, but it may not be as desirable if you plan on growing plants for profit.) If nothing casts a shadow large enough for your container, consider using a shade cloth to decrease the sun exposure. Another tactic is to bury the container partially or entirely in the ground since the earth will help the mini pond stay cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter. However, they also require extra precautions like safety fences to keep out small children and pets (just as you would do for an inground swimming pool).

When it comes to filtration, a simple sponge filter with an air pump should suffice for a mini pond, but you can also buy a pond filter or make your own DIY bucket filter for keeping larger fish like goldfish and African cichlids. An important step is to protect the electrical equipment from sun and rain. You can shelter the air pump in a garage, and then run the airline tubing outside to the tub. To protect extension cables and power cords, a weatherproof box can be purchased at a hardware store. Cover the air pump with a weatherproof box, or place it underneath an upside down tote to reduce UV damage.

Once the equipment is set up, fill the container and add dechlorinater to make the tap water safe for fish. Rain should replace the evaporation in the mini pond. However, you might need to add water to the container with the hose if it is in drought. In the rest of the article, we’ll talk about plants, fish, and predator deterrents to add to the mini pond.

What Are the Best Plants for a Small Pond?

We highly recommend adding aquatic plants into your pond because of the many benefits they provide. Plants offer shade and shelter for fish to hide from predators, as well as landing spots for insects and amphibians to take a drink. Because of its stunning purple flowers and long bushy roots, water hyacinths are a favorite pond plant. They provide excellent cover for fish. Because of their remarkable ability to remove organic waste and toxic substances from water, they are often used by water treatment plants.

Water Hydrant in Bloom

You can also grow duckweed, lotuses and water lilies in your pond. Toss in some water sprite or other stem plant trimmings, and they will flourish and multiply under the natural sunlight. You don’t have to worry about the decaying material in the container, such as branches or fallen leaves. The plants purify the water, and your mini ecosystem (consisting of algae, microorganisms, and fish) helps break them down.

What Fish Can You Put in a Small Pond?

This question requires some additional research on your part in terms of how long certain fish can stay outside in your climate zone, but we’ve found great success with these hardy species, some of which can tolerate cooler temperatures:

– Variatus platies – Wild type endlers – Cherry shrimp – Ricefish – White cloud mountain minnows – Killifish – Japanese trapdoor snails – Koi and goldfish – Apistogramma dwarf cichlids – Rainbowfish

You can even put multiple species together, as long as they’re all peaceful and won’t eat each other. Most fish breed readily outside, so make sure to have an exit strategy in terms of where to keep all the babies. Selling the extra fish and plants to friends, fish stores, or online auctions at the end of pond season can be a nice way to recoup some of your summer tubbing costs.

Livebearers are a common fish to breed during pond season because of their healthy appetites and high birth rates.

How do you protect your Pond from Predators?

Unfortunately, by putting little fish out in nature, you’re also providing potential food for the local wildlife. Raccoons, cats, and larger birds will happily eat whatever you give them. If you don’t have any bigger fish in the mini pond, dragonfly larvae can find a way to sneak in and catch some baby fish. While there is no guarantee that you will be able to protect your animals from all dangers, these are some ways you can try depending on the animal problems.

The first line of defense is to provide plenty of hiding spots for the fish using plants, PVC pipes, plant shelves, hardscape, and other decor. Some people place “lids” above their tubs (e.g. metal wire racks, greenhouse siding), which allow light to pass through and keep predators away. Others prefer to use netting, a grid of clear fishing line, or mesh covers that can be easily removed for your enjoyment.

If you see a strange alien swimming in your pond, it might be a dragonfly larva predating on fish fry.

How Do You Winterize a Small Pond?

Most tropical fish cannot live outdoors during the winter seasons, so drain the water and bring them indoors when temperatures start dipping below 65degF or 18degC. (If you want to keep the fish out longer, consider using a heater to add an extra month of pond season in the spring and fall.) If you want perennial plants to return next year, trim their leaves to start their dormant periods. Then store them in the garage.

If you want to try keeping cold water fish outdoors in the winter, use a small air stone or sponge filter to keep the water somewhat aerated and allow sufficient oxygen to reach the fish. If the tub is large enough or buried inground, stratification may occur, such that the surface ices over and insulates the warmer water at the bottom where the fish are “hibernating.” Smaller containers with fish can be moved entirely into the garage to decrease the chances of freezing.

Inground Ponds are warmer in winter, but need extra safety fencing to protect pets and children.

Want to read more articles like this? To stay informed about our blog posts, videos and events, subscribe to our e-newsletter